Role of Serum Biomarkers in Early Detection of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in the West Virginian Population

Objectives: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an established complication of diabetes mellitus. In West Virginia, the especially high incidence of diabetes and heart failure validate the necessity of developing new strategies for earlier detection of DCM. Since most DCM patients remain asymptomatic until the later stages of the disease when the fibrotic complications become irreversible, we aimed to explore biomarkers that can identify early-stage DCM.

Methods: The patients were grouped into 4 categories based on clinical diabetic and cardiac parameters: Control, Diabetes (DM), Diastolic dysfunction (DD), and Diabetes with diastolic dysfunction (DM+DD), the last group being the preclinical DCM group.

Results: Echocardiography images indicated severe diastolic dysfunction in patients with DD+DM and DD compared to DM or control patients. In the DM and DM+DD groups, TNFα, isoprostane, and leptin were elevated compared to control (p<0.05), as were clinical markers HDL, glucose and hemoglobin A1C. Fibrotic markers IGFBP7 and TGF-β followed the same trend. The Control group showed higher beneficial levels of adiponectin and bilirubin, which were reduced in the DM and DM+DD groups (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The results from our study support the clinical application of biomarkers in diagnosing early stage DCM, which will enable attenuation of disease progression prior to the onset of irreversible complications.