The Appalachian and the Carpathian mountain systems are known as an arena of the long-term economic development of natural resources. These cultural landscapes as the Appalachian coalfield and the Carpathian oil-and-gas province are rich in significant mineral deposits. The after-effects common for these far-distant areas highlight thisfact. There are excessive emissions of chemical substances, acid rainfalls, pollution of land resourcesand reductionin species of living forms in particular. The excessive deforestation has led to intensification of such natural phenomena as storms, hurricanes, and water erosion, etc.
Primary the necessity to develop the indicators of the sustainable development was stated at the United Nation Conference on Environment and Development – “Agenda for the 21st century” (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), the action program of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and other international documents. There are many world examples when the main provisions of the sustainable development strategy are successfully implemented. Especially, the EU countries implement it as a part of the Europe 2020 strategy.
As it was noted at the session of the Committee on Sustainable Development of the Council of Europe, the development of the mountain areas shall cover the full range of tasks: commencing from the rational use of natural resources, development of agriculture and forestry up to the preservation of heritage and traditions. All of this requires also effective cross-border cooperation in order to preserve the social, economic and natural potentials peculiar to the regions of the Appalachian and the Carpathian Mountains.