Contrasting and Comparing Substance Use, Abuse and Dependence Patterns in a Community Corrections Setting in Two Appalachian Counties over a 20 Year Time Period

This study contrasted and compared substance use, abuse and dependence in the community corrections setting during three time-periods in two Appalachian counties. The sample was drawn from adults above the age of 18 years, who were on either felony probation or parole, and who resided in either Pike or Floyd County in Kentucky. Participants were selected based on information gathered at the time of referral to determine eligibility. The exploratory ex-post facto sample was taken from client histories and referral information for clients on probation and parole that were referred to the community substance abuse program of the Kentucky Department of Corrections for an assessment and/or substance abuse services. This information was self-report, and questionable responses were confirmed by reviewing information on the presentence investigation. All participants were assessed using a client history and a personal interview. Selected participants were on the caseload for drug-related offenses or referred because of drug and alcohol related problems such as a new drug or alcohol related arrest or a positive urine drug screen. To be eligible to participate in the study the client must have had a past or present history of substance use, abuse or dependence. The analysis of the study examined participants and the similarities and differences of six variables (age, gender, last grade completed, drug of choice, age of first alcohol use, and age of first drug use) of participants in two Eastern Kentucky counties, Pike and Floyd counties during the three time periods: 1995-96, 2005-06 and 2014-15.